olute Characteristic of ESP is:
1. ESP is designed to meet specific needs of the learner.
2. ESP is related in content either in its theme and topics to particular activities, special discipline and occupation; it makes use of the underlying methodology.
3. ESP is centered on the language appropriate to these activities in terms of grammar, lexis, register, study skills, discourse and genres appropriate to these activities.
4. ESP is contrast with ‘General English’.
The division of ESP into absolute and variable characteristics in particular is very helpful in resolving arguments about what ESP is and which one is not ESP. From the definition, ESP is not necessarily concerned with a specific discipline and also it has
To be aimed at certain age group or ability range. The Variable Characteristics of ESP are:
1. ESP may be related to or designed for specific disciplines.
2. ESP may be used in specific teaching situations, a different methodology from that of General English.
3. ESP is likely to be designed for adult learners, either at a tertiary level institution or in a professional work situation. It could, however, be for learners at secondary school level.
4. ESP is generally designed for intermediate or advanced students.
5. Most ESP courses assume some basic knowledge of the language system.
There is a summary of the advantages of learning ESP according Stevens’ (1988) and those points are:
1. Learning ESP does not waste any time, because it focuses on the learner’s need.
2. This field of study is relevant to the learner and it is successful in imparting learning.
3. ESP is more cost effective than ‘General English’ because of various specific works and there is eagerness of the learners to know more about the material.
Dudley Evans is one artistic Director of Birmingham Jazz and Cheltenham Jazz Festival. He is a British linguist and the one who is expert in English for Specific Purposes. One of the most influential authors in the development of the modern notion of genre, he is usually grouped together with John Swales and Vija Bhatia as the driving force recent developments in ESP. Since his retirement from the academic 2001 he has become a jazz promoter based in Birmingham, England.
Tony Dudley Evans from his book with Maggie Jo St John entitled Developments in English for Specific Purposes (1998) attempt to pull together the theory and practice of ESP (English for Specific Purposes) from their experience in EAP (English for Academic Purposes) and EOP (English Occupational Purposes) in different parts of the world. They have an experience and gathered their knowledge in every continent of the world by living and working in large number of countries except Australasia.
1.7 Outline and the organization of the study
The organization of the present study is as follows:
Chapter one: the domain and problem of the study are represented. Then the purpose and significant of the research will be introduced and finally the research questions and hypothesis will be stated.
Chapter two: literature review is the second chapter where in the related studies theoretically and experimentally are provided. In this chapter the weak and strong points of the literature are also discussed.
Chapter three: chapter three presents the methodology of the study. In this section the required information about the corpus under study and procedure of data collection and analysis will be elaborated on
Chapter four: In this chapter the result of the study will be presented in details, and will discuss.
Chapter five: this chapter will contain the conclusion of the study and suggestion for further research.
Review of the related literature
To place the present study in the context, the theoretical foundations and related literature are reviewed in this chapter. First, this chapter reviews the notion of systemic functional grammar (SFG) followed by the elaboration of the concept of the English for specific purposes (ESP) and academic rhetoric. Finally the empirical studies conducted in the scope of SFG and ESP will be elaborated on concisely.
2.2. SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR (SFG)
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An approach to linguistic description which aims to provide a comprehensive account of how language is used in context for communication. The approach views language as a resource that is fundamentally shaped by the uses that people make of it; it therefore aims to explain the forms of language in terms of the meanings that they express, and to develop a grammar which is designed to ‘make it possible to say sensible and useful things about any text, spoken or written’ (Halliday 1994: xv). See also: Corpora; (Critical) Discourse Analysis Integrationism; Langue/Parole; Metaphor; Modality; Transformational-Generative Grammar. Key Thinkers: Halliday, M. A. K.; Bernstein, Basil; Firth, J. R.; Hjelmslev, Louis; Malinowsky, Bronislaw; Sinclair, John; Whorf, Benjamin Lee.
Systemic-functional grammar (SFG) originated with M. A. K. Halliday, building especially on the ideas of his tutor J. R. Firth, in publications from the 1960s on, with major contributions by other scholars such as Ruqaiya Hasan and, in more recent years, Jim Martin and Christian Matthiessen among many others. From early in its development, SFG has had two main distinguishing features, which are reflected in the name. First, whereas many approaches focus on the syntagmatic, ‘horizontal’ dimension of how constituents may be combined with other constituents in a well-formed structure, SFG priorities the choices that are open to the speaker at any particular point in an utterance – the paradigmatic, ‘vertical’ dimension. The grammatical structures are then seen as the outcome of choices from those available (the technical term in SFG is that structures ‘realise’ choices). Sets of choices between options can most economically be shown in the form of systems for example, ‘if A is the case there is a choice between B and C; if B is chosen, there is then a choice between D, E and F; but if C is chosen, there is then a choice between G and H’. Systems embody the Saussurean concept of valeur: a linguistic form has meaning by virtue of the other possible forms that could have been chosen instead. Hence this is a ‘systemic’ grammar. Second, the model is oriented primarily towards meaning rather than form: that is, its aim is to describe how wordings are used in expressing meanings. What a linguistic form consists of is seen as less important than the function that it performs in the clause: hence, this is a ‘functional grammar.